Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone secreted by the human heart and has the function of assisting in fluid retention and volume expansion in veins and arteries when high levels of pro-(nt)-BNP are present. BNP is a moiety of a larger precursor protein called pro-BNP which is continuously produced by the heart. An enzyme known as Corin splits pro-BNP to release two moieties, an active 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone called BNP and an inactive 76 amino acid N-terminal prohormone known as NT-proBNP (also abbreviated as BNPT).BNP is a 32-amino acid polypeptide hormone found in the heart. It is produced continuously by the heart as a precursor protein, pro-BNP, which is cleaved to produce an active hormone and a nonactive prohormone (NT-proBNP).
What is b type natriuretic peptide: The body secretes the b type natriuretic peptide into the blood in response to increased ventricular blood volume. The hormone causes fluid retention and volume expansion, mainly in veins and arteries. It also acts as a vasodilator. Its physiological function is similar to that of atrial natriuretic peptide, which comes from the heart chambers rather than the nerve tissue. This peptide has a role in regulating sodium and water homeostasis. It increases excretion of salt, as well as water, by promoting diuresis. Its effect on water content reduces blood pressure.
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a protein produced by your heart and released into your blood when the pressure in your heart is too high. BNP can also be measured from blood spots as an alternative to blood drawn directly from a vein. It’s sometimes referred to as brain natriuretic peptide or B-type natriuretic peptide.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, is a human cytokine associated with systemic inflammation and is an integral component of the acute phase reaction. Primarily, activated macrophages produce TNFα, but other cell types such as natural killer cells, mast cells, T helper cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils can also produce TNFα. These cells produce TNFα as a stable 233 amino acid long homotrimer protein, from which a metalloprotease, TNFα-converting enzyme proteolytically cleaves and releases a soluble homotrimeric cytokine. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNFα, is a human cytokine associated with systemic inflammation and is an integral component of the acute phase reaction. Primarily, activated macrophages produce TNFα, but other cell types such as natural killer cells, mast cells, T helper cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils can also produce TNFα.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine that plays an essential role in survival, proliferation, and cell differentiation during embryonic development. During postnatal life, TNFα activates inflammatory cells to clear the body of noxious stimuli, cell debris and microbes. TNFα has also been reported to play a critical role during sterile-inflammation mediated by pathogens such as P and Helicobacter pylori by stimulating innate immune cells to eradicate the microbes. Additionally, TNFα has been shown to control metabolism, insulin sensitivity as well as muscle function and atrophy. Therefore, many laboratories have been interested in developing small molecules and monoclonal antibodies to block the action of this cytokine in order to control inflammation and infectious diseases as well as other chronic diseases such as cancer and metabolic disorders.