Substations, Transmissions and Hybrid energy Storage Systems – All you need to know!


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Substations and Transmissions

Substations serve as connecting points between the transmission network and the energy generators, big load customers, and the lower voltage distribution network that they service, among other functions. Due to the fact that substations do not generate electricity, they are often relatively silent when in operation.

Most of the time, the faint hum from a transformer can only be heard when one is standing close to the substation site’s perimeter.

What’s in a substation?

When a generator generates electricity, they raise the voltage of the electricity produced by the generator from an average of between 12,000 and 22,000 Volts to transmission voltages of 132,000 and 275,000 Volts, and then lower the voltage to 66,000, 33,000, or 11,000 Volts so that it can enter the distribution network.

Additionally, compact buildings for staff amenities as well as technologies for safety and control systems are found at substations. This enables our central control centre to monitor and run the facility from a distance without having to physically visit it.

Switchyards

Those substations that don’t have transformers are referred to as switchyards. A switchyard is a facility that may be controlled from a distance to reroute power supplies to areas where there is an urgent or emergency demand.

How a substation works?

Transmission lines transport energy over long distances at high voltages of 132 or 275 kV before arriving at a substation where the voltage is regulated to a safe level. Once the voltage has been decreased to 66, 33, or 11 kV, the power is transferred to major industrial clients or the distribution network, from where it is sent to households and businesses throughout the country. Let’s look at the different working parts of a substation!

  1. Light poles offer illumination for emergency response teams who may be called to the scene in the case of a failure.
  2. Surge arrestors are devices that safeguard equipment within a substation from any voltage spikes that may occur on the transmission lines that may occur.
  3. Line disconnectors are devices that allow transmission lines and equipment within a substation to be securely detached for the purpose of performing maintenance.
  4. Transmission lines are guided into the substation by gantries, which are elevated structures.
  5. Power transformers, also known as voltage and current transformers, are used to detect voltage and current entering and passing through a power substation.
  6. Breakers are automated switches that stop electrical flow in order to de-energize equipment and remove problems from the system.
  7. Lightning masts are used to divert lightning away from vital substation infrastructure.
  8. Busbars are conductors that link the various pieces of equipment in a substation.
  9. Temperature and precipitation monitoring stations give real-time information regarding localized circumstances that might have an impact on the safe and dependable operation of the transmission network.
  10. Power transformers change the voltage by increasing or decreasing it depending on whether the substation is an entry point into the transmission network or an exit point into the distribution network, respectively.
  11. Substations may be monitored and managed from a distance thanks to the use of communication towers.
  12. Equipment should be turned on and any defects should be resolved.
  13. Lightning masts are used to divert lightning away from vital substation infrastructure.
  14. Busbars are conductors that link the various pieces of equipment in a substation.
  15. Temperature and precipitation monitoring stations give real-time information regarding localized circumstances that might have an impact on the safe and dependable operation of the transmission network.
  16. Power transformers change the voltage by increasing or decreasing it depending on whether the substation is an entry point into the transmission network or an exit point into the distribution network, respectively.
  17. Substations may be monitored and managed from a distance thanks to the use of communication towers.
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Safety around Substations

Around substations, a range of multi-layered security and safety measures are in place to maintain public safety while simultaneously preserving the equipment and ensuring the transmission network can “keep the lights on.”While it is completely safe to live near, pass by, or observe a substation from outside the perimeter fence line, it is exceedingly dangerous for an untrained individual to enter a substation without authority.

Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

In what is known as Hybrid Energy Storage Systems (HEES), electronic systems capable of storing electrical energy for future use are defined as follows: Electronic systems capable of storing electrical energy for future use. When it comes to storage capacity, it can be achieved by combining several batteries of different technologies (lead acid, lithium-ion, and so on), which are then arranged in an array to achieve the desired storage capacity.

The diversity of technologies allows for the mitigation of drawbacks and the maximization of effectiveness.

Hybrid energy storage systems for microgrids applications

Energy storage systems provide several benefits, including balancing generation and demand, improving power quality, smoothing the intermittency of renewable energy sources, and providing auxiliary services like as frequency and voltage management in microgrid (MG) operation.

Combining the appropriate features of different energy storage technologies, hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) have emerged as a solution for achieving the desired performance by coupling two or more energy storage technologies. Hybrid energy storage systems are characterized by the coupling of two or more energy storage technologies.

It is not possible to complete the intended operation with one ESS technology because to the restricted capability and potency it possesses in terms of life expectancy, cost, energy and power density, and dynamic responsiveness. Therefore, several HESS configurations have been presented in the literature, taking into account the storage type, interface, control mechanism, and service that is given by each HESS.

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Hybrid Energy storage for electric vehicles

The dramatic growth in emissions from conventional cars, in addition to the energy crises and low conversion efficiency, has resulted in the development of electric vehicles as a solution to the growing environmental problems (EV). Despite the fact that hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) offer excellent fuel efficiency and lower operating costs, the ultimate objective is to transition totally to pure electric vehicles.

Despite this, the primary impediment to the widespread adoption of HEVs is a lack of energy storage capacity. A high specific power (W/kg) and high specific energy (Wh/kg) are required by an electric vehicle (EV) in order to enhance the distance driven and minimize the time necessary for charging. The primary focus of this study is on energy sources because they are the most important components of electric vehicles in terms of making them environmentally friendly and cost-effective.

Various EV technology topologies, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and others, have been considered. These electric vehicle topologies are based on a wide combination of energy sources and energy storage technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, flywheels, and regenerative braking systems.


Adil Husnain

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