DevOps is a bridge that exists between development and operational teams which were previously operating independently of their respective silos. DevOps brings together the workflows and processes used by development and operations, by offering a shared infrastructure and toolchain, arranged around the idea of pipelines. It’s a method of collaboration that allows each team to learn about the procedures employed by the other teams which allows teams to collaborate to increase efficiency and quality.
As companies adopted DevOps, development teams built their pipelines with multiple tools and needed to adapt and integrate the tools. When an additional tool was added or a new requirement was introduced the pipeline needed to be rebuilt. This was not efficient, so an alternative was to group pipeline components into containers and manage them through Kubernetes.
Containers are units of software that contain all the dependencies and code necessary to run an app or service in any software. Through the creation of a modular infrastructure built around microservices and running within containers, companies can develop flexible, portable pipelines that can be created and replicated with minimal effort. Container orchestrators like Kubernetes assists in managing a vast amount of containers as in a group and automates the process of managing them throughout their lifecycle. Top advocate in India.
Kubernetes is among the top well-known container orchestration systems, and has grown into an indispensable instrument used by DevOps teams. Teams of application developers are now able to deploy containerized apps to Kubernetes clusters. These can be run on-premises or in a cloud-based environment. Best lawyers in Chandigarh.
Containers and Kubernetes make sure that infrastructure and applications always run and operate in the same manner, because of their immutability. Kubernetes is an abstraction of infrastructure that fully automatizes installation and configuration, removing the need to configure specific software components.
Kubernetes provides a clear distinction between running runtime infrastructure that is operating and the deployment of applications. IT professionals can concentrate on managing Kubernetes clusters as well as dealing with issues such as capacity management, monitoring of infrastructure and networks, disaster recovery and security. Team members working on application development can concentrate on creating containers, deploying, as well as installing Kubernetes manifest YAML and managing secrets. To learn how to install kubernetes consider taking Kubernetes Training.
A Kubernetes infrastructure reduces the load on both application and operations teams, and enhances collaboration. In lieu of communicating with different parties to get an environment up and running or an application installed the entire process can be accomplished through an open and declarative configuration.
Related content Read our guide on Kubernetes architecture
Kubernetes offers a variety of features to assist DevOps teams to build large-scale pipelines. Its primary benefit is that it is able to automate the manual tasks needed for orchestration. Here are some ways that Kubernetes can power enterprises with DevOps.
Kubernetes lets you create your entire infrastructure using code (a pattern referred to in the field of IaC). Kubernetes allows you to define and automatically set up all aspects of your software and tools, such as access control and networking databases, storage and security.
It is also possible to manage the settings for your environment in the code. instead of running scripts each time you have to set up an environment that is new, create a repository of source code with environment configuration, as well as Kubernetes and utilize this configuration declarative to automatically set up your environments.
It is also possible to make use of a version control system to control your code as an application in development. This lets teams easily define and alter configurations and infrastructures and then push the modifications to Kubernetes to automate processing.
Kubernetes provides fine-grained access control on the elements within your pipe. You can define which roles or apps can carry out specific tasks and restrict from accessing other roles or programs. For instance, you could restrict users to viewing only production instances of the app as developers and testers can work on development instances within the same cluster.
This type of control facilitates seamless collaboration, while maintaining resources and configuration consistency.
Kubernetes allows developers to build infrastructure using a self-service model. Cluster administrators can set up common resources, like permanent volumes. Developers are able to create them dynamically according to their needs, without needing to talk with IT. Operations teams have full oversight over the nature of resources to the cluster, their resource allocation and security configuration.
Automatic rollbacks and rolling updates within Kubernetes allows teams to deploy updates without interruptions. It is possible to use Kubernetes to shift the traffic between different services and update applications in a single step without interruption to production, and without the need to redeploy the entire system.
These options allow for the use of progressive deployment patterns, such as blue/green deployments as well as canary deployments. A/B testing.
The best practices listed below can aid you in making the most out of CI/CD within a Kubernetes environment.
The ability to trigger CI/CD pipelines using Git-based operations offers many benefits with regard to consistency, as well as development efficiency. Companies keep the entire pipeline and changes to the environment in one repository, which allows developers to review their changes and understand precisely what’s being running at any time. GitOps is always a lot simpler to rollback to a prior good configuration in the event of issues in production.
The CI/CD pipeline is used to deploy the code into production once it has passed automated tests. But, the tests aren’t flawless and it’s not uncommon to spot bugs, or security issues in production environments.
A blue/green-colored deployment can solve this issue. Green deployments mean that you set up another set of applications in parallel with the production instances. Users switch to the latest version however, you keep the previous version running to allow for an easy rollback in the event of problems.
Canary deployment model is another approach to decrease the possibility of new deployments. The canary deployment pattern is the upgrade version of an app that is offered to a limited percentage of users in order to test for bugs and to observe user metrics. If the upgraded version is well-received by users, it’s distributed to other users, until finally all users are able to see the latest version. If there is a problem the users are all changed back to the stable version.
Kubernetes clusters make use of services to control canary deployments. A service can make use of labels and selectors in order to route users to certain pods. In this way, a particular percentage of users will be directed to pods running an alternate version of the program.
Containers that are mutable in development, staging development or QA environments must be identical to the containers that are used in production. This will prevent modifications that could occur between the successful testing phase and the actual launch of the product. To achieve this, you must utilize the Git tag to start a deployment and then deploy the container using its commit ID.
Secrets are digital certificates that need to be secured in the Kubernetes-based cluster. A majority of applications employ secrets to authenticate users with the CI/CD service and other applications. Source control systems such as GitHub may reveal secrets if they’re embedded in code in plaintext, which can result in serious security risk. So, it is essential to ensure that secret information is safe and protected outside of the container, either in an appropriate secrets management system or by using Kubernetes secret objects.
Testing and scanning every new container image is essential to find the vulnerabilities that are introduced by new versions or components. Keep in mind that every version of your CI/CD pipeline may create new vulnerabilities. It is also crucial to test the images in containers to ensure that the containers contain the required content and the specifications of images are properly defined.
The version of Infrastructure as a Service (IaC) lets teams automatically create IT infrastructure. Automating infrastructure is now an integral part in contemporary DevOps processes. Kubernetes YAML files as well as Helm charts constitute a particular example of IaC templates for configuration.
The broad usage of IaC introduces new security dangers, as one IaC template (for instance an Kubernetes pod specifications) can be used to generate a huge quantity of running resources. Any vulnerabilities in the base template are inherited by all resources. Therefore, IaC templates are a brand new attack area.
An IaC scanning tool analyzes the most common cloud-native formats like Dockerfiles and Kubernetes YaML and implements an array of rules to ensure good security best practices. It can also recommend additional ways to strengthen Kubernetes configurations.
For instance, IaC scanning can detect Docker images that are designed to be run as root, Kubernetes manifests that require the privilege of accessing a node’s file system or scripts that create publicly accessible Amazon S3 buckets. Another significant feature that is offered by IaC scanners is the ability to find hidden secrets that are written in plain text within IaC templates.
It is crucial to use IaC scanning tools while creating configurations, and also on a periodic basis to ensure automated testing through the entire CI/CD process.